Communalism refers to a system that integrates communal ownershipand federationsof highly localised independent communities.
i)There is collective ownership of the resources.
ii)There is the opportunity for individuals to participate in community development.
iii)Absence of division of class.
iv)There is opportunity for individuals to participate in decision making.
Presidential System of Government is one in which there is an executive President, that is, someone vested with all executive powers and who combines the office of head of state and head of government.
i)In Presidential System of Government, the President is both the head of state and head of government, and exercises real executive powers.
ii)The President and legislators remain in office for a fixed term.
iii)The President is not chosen by the legislature, but is elected by the electorate directly, or indirectly through an electoral college.
iv)The principle of collective responsibility, which obtains in a cabinet system of government does not apply in a Presidential System of Government.
i)Regulating trade by fixing price for essential commodities
ii)Deciding on days for religious ceremonies and carrying them out
iii)Trying offenders and ensuring that the punishment imposed on them are carried out
iv)Organising age groups and assigning duties to them
v)Negotiating peace with neighbours as well as planning for and engaging in war
(i) Evil practices thrived: Most of the traditional rulers were involved in evil practices and the system does not prosecute them for necessary punishment
(ii) It excluded educated Nigerians: The educated Nigerians were excluded from taking part in the colonial administration instead they made use of illitrates
(iii) Development was retarded: Indirect rule was an instrument in maintainning status quo than of development.progress and development were relatively very low especially in the northern part of the country
(iv) Appointment of warrant chiefs: The traditional institutions of the people were neglected and colonial authority appoint warrant chiefs that merely represented the interest of those that appointed them
(v) Monopoly: The colonial authority monopolised the right to appoint and depose traditional rulers and chiefs without people’s consent
– *New Image for Africa* :
The African Union has become the voice of the African continent on the global level. Many times, the United Nations and the European Union just decide to follow the position of the African Union on African problems.
– *Improved relations with the industrialized world* :
Through New Partnership for African Development, the African Union has been able to create a better relationship between the world’s industrialized nations and Africa.
– *Continental Peace* :
The African Union has achieved a certain level of peace and security on the African continent. For example a 7000-man African Union peace-keeping force was formed and sent into Dafur to maintain peace. The African union also successfully mediated in the conflict that erupted in Cote d’lvore and that country is now enjoying relative peace.
– *Ensuring credible elections* :
The African Union has been monitoring elections in various parts of the continent. This has helped to ensure credible elections and the installation of legitimate governments in many member states. For example, in Madagascar, the AU refused to recognize Marc Revalonmanana in a disputed presidential election in that country. This was because Didier Ratsiraka, the former president had also claimed that had also won that very election. The A.U. called for a fresh election which eventually led to the victory of Marc Revalonmanana.
– *Gender balance* :
The African Union elected a woman as the first President of the African Union’s parliament. This is seen as recognition of the need for gender balance in appointments within the African Union.
– *Welfare of African Children* :
The African Union has done a lot to protect the rights and welfare of Africa children. It has instituted the Day of the African Child to project the rights and interests of children. This Day of the African Child is held every 21st June. The Union has been sponsoring programmes for school children in selected member states.
– *Reduction in military intervention* :
Hitherto, there had been military adventures on the African continent, disrupting the march of the continent toward democracy. The African Union has been able to dampen the resort to military coups on the continent, bringing a measure of stability onto the political scene. The Constitutive Act of the AU frowns upon coups.